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Transnational challenges

There is a growing overlap between the EU’s internal and external security problems. Terrorism, organised crime and unregulated migration not only pose a threat to European internal security, but also have a serious impact on the stability of Europe’s immediate neighbourhood. Very often, they find their roots in conflicts and instability further abroad in Africa or Asia.

For some time, the European Union has been active in international debates on the governance of these challenges, and has created new policy instruments of its own. Already in the early 1990s, the EU successfully linked its home-affairs priorities with its Common Foreign and Security Policy. The 2015 migration crisis showed the limits of that approach, and has sparked a new wave of reforms.

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    10June 2013

    Although the politics of renewable energy has remained largely confined to national boundaries and has had few international ramifications to date, this may be about to change. If this is the case, what is and could be the role of renewables in European energy diplomacy?

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    10June 2013

    The debate around food security is being driven by Malthusian fears fuelled by growing environmental pressures, slow agricultural growth and the projected population increases of the next decades. It is in this context that this brief identifies how the EU can assist in the establishment of a resilient and sustainable global agricultural system.

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    07June 2013

    Le 11 mai 2013, il y a eu une fuite à bord de la Station spatiale internationale résultat d’un impact provenant d’une collision avec une micrométéorite ou un petit débris spatial. Cet incident soulève la question des risques de collision dans l’espace et celle des débris orbitaux. Au-delà de l’événement ponctuel, il existe une véritable problématique des débris spatiaux qui concerne l’ensemble des Etats.

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    07June 2013

    Since the launch of its two ‘flagship programmes’ in the late 1990s, the EU has been increasingly involved in space activities. But despite the new competences as a result of the Lisbon Treaty, the temptation to compare EU space activities and policies with those of other spacefaring nations should be avoided, and its success in overcoming various hurdles seen as a considerable achievement.

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    15April 2013

    Although considerable progress has been made regarding the implementation of multilateral nuclear approaches (MNAs) over the past few years, the drive appears to have already lost much momentum since its reinvigoration a decade ago. There is much potential in this realm for the EU to play a constructive role and for its internal diversity to become a foreign policy asset.

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    08April 2013

    Shared rules regarding the usage of - and access to - the global commons encourages their peaceful and cooperative use. With the rise of non-Western powers, questions must now be asked regarding the durability of the existing processes for managing the global commons. Are new processes required to address new threats and challenges, in particular in the realm of cyber security?

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    27March 2013

    Since the entry into force of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 1997, much progress has been made in destroying existing stockpiles of chemical weapons. However, the CWC is faced with new threats and challenges due to advances in science and technology and the changing international security, political and economic environment. On the eve of the Third Review Conference of the treaty, this report examines some of the most pressing challenges facing the CWC over the next decade.

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    26March 2013

    On 19 March 2013 a serious allegation was made concerning the use of chemical weapons near Aleppo. In this context, how could the EU play a role that would assist not only the potential victims of chemical attacks but also the process of eliminating all non-conventional weapons in the Middle East?

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    18February 2013

    The recent boom in ‘unconventional’ oil and gas in the United States has raised many questions regarding the impact it will have on global energy markets, the security of energy supplies, the fight against climate change and even the global balance of power. Is it now time for Europe to develop its own resources?

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    18February 2013

    Despite Africa’s rainy equatorial zone, long rivers, great lakes and vast shores, water is becoming an increasingly scarce commodity. Convincing policy responses are required in order to alleviate growing pressure on water resources that could eventually lead to domestic unrest, exacerbate existing inter-state tensions and even constitute a source of armed conflict.

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    01December 2002

    Most Americans see the regime of Saddam Hussein as a major threat to regional and international security that must be thwarted, even if that means threatening or even using military force. If Saddam were to acquire nuclear weapons, they fear, he would seek to use them to dominate the Middle East, possibly invading his neighbours as he has in the past and perhaps deterring the United States from stopping him.

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    01December 2002

    UNSC Resolution 1441 has given the Iraqi regime a last opportunity to abandon any WMD programmes. If Iraq does not comply fully with the resolution or if inspections show that Iraq is indeed hiding WMD, the Security Council will have to consider the situation and decide what measures must be taken to maintain international peace and security.

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    01December 2002

    The events of 11 September moved all Europeans but were never understood for what they really were: the return of war to the most developed societies. The emotion thus quickly gave way to the belief that this had been an isolated event, or at least one that would not be repeated on the same scale.

  • 01September 2002

    It has become commonplace to say that the events of 11 September have changed international affairs dramatically. With regard to nuclear affairs, this is also partly the case. The terrorist attacks themselves had no direct nuclear implications, but they gave new impetus to ongoing change in the nuclear landscape.

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    02July 2001

    In nuclear matters more than in any other political area, perceptions have the force of law. The most concrete nuclear technology would count for little without the extremely sophisticated theories of uncertainty that form the basis of any nuclear deterrence strategy. Yet for the last few years both the technological and intellectual worlds of deterrence, as mankind has known it since 1945, have been in turmoil on all continents.

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    01May 2001

    Le Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) est à l’heure actuelle le seul dispositif politico-juridique international de lutte contre la prolifération des missiles. Il a été mis sur pied en 1987 par les 7 pays les plus industrialisés, et regroupe aujourd’hui 33 Etats.

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    01September 2000

    The first session focused on threat perceptions and threat assessments. The key question was whether a threat exists that justifies NMD deployment. Do the so-called ‘countries of concern’ really intent to threaten the US homeland and, even more importantly, do they have the financial and the technological means to scale up their existing arsenal to true intercontinental range?

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    01January 2000

    In 1994-1995, one of the first joint actions by the European Union in the framework of the CFSP concerned the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. And it was successful: during the NPT Review Conference in April-May 1995, the member countries of the Union played an essential role in ensuring the indefinite extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

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    01December 1998

    Decision-making is the essence of any authority, in terms not only of operational effectiveness but also, fundamentally, of political credibility. The task has become more daunting since, with the restoration of shared rules of cohabitation in Europe and hopefully world-wide, the number of actors in national and international relations, as well as of objective factors that transcend national boundaries, has increased exponentially. ...

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    01October 1997

    Pendant la Guerre froide, le facteur nucléaire a structuré et sous-tendu les relations internationales. Il était à la base des stratégies militaires du monde occidental, déterminant toutes les fonctions de défense.

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