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Civil-military relations in the MENA: between fragility and resilience

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This Chaillot Paper explores the difficult relations between the civil and the military sectors in the Middle East and North Africa – a relationship that lies at the very juncture between state and society and involves issues of power, loyalty and legitimacy. The study examines the flaws and failures that have so far prevented a more functional and balanced relationship between civilian and military authorities – crucial to building ‘resilience’ – from emerging. The paper highlights in particular the importance of security sector reform (SSR) as a tool with which the international community – and especially the EU – can contribute to consolidating the rule of law and, more generally, sustainable systems of governance.