As Islamic extremists continue their advance across Iraq, this Brief takes stock of terrorism-related developments in the Middle East and North Africa. What factors explain the escalation in terror attacks? And what steps – legal or otherwise – are governments taking to counter the ‘jihadi highway’ that now spans the region?
Military expenditure in Europe is mainly a budgetary affair these days. But in the Arab world it is an important factor in assessing whether and where wars may occur. Military spending data can indicate the likelihood of a conflict breaking out or recurring, as well as the state of economic development in a given country: where military spending is high, there is not only a stronger probability that war will occur, it is also more likely to return.
Most importantly, where defence expenditure is high and keeps rising and economic development suffers as a result, the threat of war becomes even more acute.